Dinosaur – killing space rock was a comet

Dinosaur – killing space rock was a comet

By Paul RinconScience editor, BBC News website, The Woodlands, Texas

Dinosaur - killing space rock was a comet

The impact 65 million years ago killed off 70% of species on Earth – including the dinosaurs.

The space rock that hit Earth 65m years ago and is widely implicated in the end of the dinosaurs was probably a speeding comet, US scientists say.

Researchers in New Hampshire suggest the 180km-wide Chicxulub crater in Mexico was carved out by a smaller object than previously thought.

Many scientists consider a large and relatively slow moving asteroid to have been the likely culprit.

Details were outlined at the 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

But other researchers were more cautious about the results.

“The overall aim of our project is to better characterise the impactor that produced the crater in the Yucatan peninsula [in Mexico],” Jason Moore, from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, told BBC News.

The space rock gave rise to a global layer of sediments enriched in the chemical element iridium, in concentrations much higher than naturally occurs; it must have come from outer space.

Extra-terrestrial chemistry

However, in the first part of their work, the team suggests that frequently quoted iridium values are incorrect. Using a comparison with another extraterrestrial element deposited in the impact – osmium – they were able to deduce that the collision deposited less debris than has previously been supposed.

The recalculated iridium value suggests a smaller body hit the Earth. So for the second part of their work, the researchers took the new figure and attempted to reconcile it with the known physical properties of the Chicxulub impact.

For this smaller space rock to have produced a 180km-wide crater, it must have been travelling relatively quickly. The team found that a long-period comet fitted the bill much better than other possible candidates.

“You’d need an asteroid of about 5km diameter to contribute that much iridium and osmium. But an asteroid that size would not make a 200km-diameter crater,” said Dr Moore.

“So we said: how do we get something that has enough energy to generate that size of crater, but has much less rocky material? That brings us to comets.”

Dr Moore’s colleague Prof Mukul Sharma, also from Dartmouth College, told BBC News: “You would need some special pleading for an asteroid moving very rapidly – although it is possible. But of the comets and asteroids we have looked at in the skies, the comets are the ones that are moving very rapidly.”

Long-period comets are balls of dust, rock and ice that are on highly eccentric trajectories around the Sun. They may take hundreds, thousands or in some cases even millions of years to complete one orbit.

The extinction event 65 million years ago is now widely associated with the space impact at Chicxulub. It killed off about 70% of all species on Earth in just a short period of time, most notably the non-avian dinosaurs.

The enormous collision would have triggered fires, earthquakes and huge tsunamis. The dust and gas thrown up into the atmosphere would have depressed global temperatures for several years. Read more…..www.bbc.co.uk

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com

Imagine Dragons Dedicate Demons clip to Tyler Robinson

Imagine Dragons Dedicate Demons clip to Tyler Robinson

Imagine Dragons Dedicate Demons clip to Tyler Robinson

Breakout band Imagine Dragons has released an emotional music video for new single “Demons.” They dedicate the clip to 17-year-old fan Tyler Robinson, who recently succumbed to cancer.

The video depicts images of Imagine Dragons performing the song at a hometown show in Las Vegas. Their stage performance clips are juxtaposed with scenes of audience members thinking about their own personal demons; an American soldier recalls harrowing moments on the battlefield; another person deals with the secrets of domestic violence.

At the video’s conclusion, director Isaac Halasima has added a snippet from a clip created by Tyler Robinson’s brother Jesse, showing the band dedicating their hit “It’s Time” to Tyler in concert. Frontman Dan Reynolds gives the microphone to the elated fan to sing along with him.

“This video is a memory of the great man that he is,” Jesse Robinson commented about Reynolds on his YouTube post of the special moment between his brother and the Imagine Dragons singer.

The “Demons” clip comes with a link for fans who want to donate to the Tyler Robinson Foundation, which “is dedicated to providing financial assistance to families with children battling cancer.”

Imagine Dragons has a slew of tour dates throughout the spring and summer supporting their Night Visions album, including stops at such U.S. music festivals as KROQ’s Weenie Roast in Los Angeles on May 19, the Milwaukee Summerfest on June 19 and Chicago’sLollapalooza on August 2.

News source…..news.radio.com

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com

Dinosaurs impact also destroyed bees – says study

Dinosaurs impact also destroyed bees –  says study

Dinosaurs impact also destroyed bees -  says study

The team found the signal of a mass extinction in the DNA of carpenter bees.

Scientists say there was a widespread extinction of bees 66 million years ago, at the same time as the event that killed off the dinosaurs.

The demise of the dinosaurs was almost certainly the result of an asteroid or comet hitting Earth.

Dinosaurs impact also destroyed bees -  says study

But the extinction event was selective, affecting some groups more than others.

Writing in Plos One journal, the team used fossils and DNA analysis to show that one bee group suffered a serious decline at the time of this collision.

The researchers chose to study bees within the subfamily known as Xylocopinae – which included the carpenter bees.

This was because the evolutionary history of this group could be traced back to the Cretaceous Period, when the dinosaurs still walked the Earth.

Previous studies had suggested a widespread extinction among flowering plants during the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event 66 million years ago.

And it had long been assumed that the bees that depended upon these plants would have met the same fate.

Yet, unlike the dinosaurs, “there is a relatively poor fossil record of bees,” said the paper’s lead author Sandra Rehan, a biologist at the University of New Hampshire in Durham, US. This has made the confirmation of such an extinction difficult.

The impact that wiped out the dinosaurs created opportunities for other animals.

However, the researchers were able to use an extinct group of Xylocopinae as a calibration point for timing the dispersal of these bees.

They were also able to study flower fossils that had evolved traits that allowed them to be pollinated by bee relatives of the Xylocopinae.

“The data told us something major was happening in four different groups of bees at the same time,” said Dr Rehan.

“And it happened to be the same time as the dinosaurs went extinct.”

The findings of this study could have implications for today’s concern about the loss in diversity of bees, a pivotal species for agriculture and biodiversity.

“Understanding extinctions and the effects of declines in the past can help us understand the pollinator decline and the global crisis in pollinators today,” Dr Rehan explained.

News and picture source…..www.bbc.co.uk

Find out if dinosaurs actually went extinct

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com

DDoS attack – Distributed Denial of Service

DDoS attack – Distributed Denial of Service

DDOS, short for Distributed Denial oService, is a type of DOS attack where multiple compromised systems — which are usually infected with a Trojan — are used to target a single system causing a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Victims of a DDoS attack consist of both the end targeted system and all systems maliciously used and controlled by the hacker in the distributed attack.

According to this report on eSecurityPlanet, in a DDoS attack, the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources – potentially hundreds of thousands or more. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single IP address; plus, it is very difficult to distinguish legitimate user traffic from attack traffic when spread across so many points of origin.

Article source…..www.webopedia.com

5 Notorious DDoS Attacks in 2013 :

Early Sunday morning, part of the Chinese Internet went down in what the government is calling the largest denial-of-service attack it has ever faced. According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the attack began at 2 a.m. Sunday morning and was followed by an even more intense attack at 4 a.m. The attack was aimed at the registry that allows users to access sites with the extension “.cn,”. As originally reported by the Wall Street Journal, the attack is perhaps more an indicator of just how susceptible the global Internet infrastructure is to these types of attacks.

China has one of the most sophisticated filtering systems in the world, period. Furthermore, China’s government is rated by analysts as having one of the highest abilities to carry out cyber attacks. Despite both of these points, China is not capable of defending itself from an attack.

DOS (Denial of Service) or DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks are the single largest threat to our Internet and the Internet of Things.

Read more…..siliconangle.com

“Note from Awesome admin.”  These idiots should go and get themselves a life. Our service provider has been hit twice in the last week causing inaccessibility to our Awesome Blog. I guess they are a bunch of extremely ugly, socially inept people that only get their jollies from trying to destroy other peoples work. Get a human implant and use your talent for something good. Shame on you “IDIOTS”!!!

Visit the Webmaster Zone at Pasgroup.com


Seddon Earthquake 16 August 2013

Seddon Earthquake 16 August 2013

Seddon Earthquake 16 August 2013
Picture source…..l3.yimg.com

The force of the Seddon quake was “comparable” to those felt in central Christchurch on February 22, 2011.

Almost every home in Seddon was damaged by the earthquake swarm, which began with a magnitude 6.6 quake at 2.31pm on Friday and continued through to last night with a 5.5 jolt about 9pm – the second biggest of the swarm.

About 50 aftershocks of magnitude four and above rocked the region in the 30 hours after the jolt.

Five people were treated at Blenheim’s Wairau Hospital – four with minor injuries and one with a serious medical condition.

GNS scientist Martin Reyners said that for parts of Marlborough, the peak horizontal acceleration of Friday’s earthquake was estimated at 0.75G near Seddon – comparable to the forces felt in central Christchurch on February 22, 2011.

“So it was a pretty decent shake.”

railway lines at Hauwai

Badly damaged railway lines at Hauwai. Picture source…..www.stuff.co.nz

In Wellington, the peak force of 0.20G was felt in Karori.

A person taking off in a Boeing 747 aircraft feels a force of about 0.16. A University of California Berkeley report has said that “between 0.1G and 0.2G, most people will have difficulty keeping their footing and sickness symptoms may be induced”.

Most of the damage in Seddon was confined to roofs, brickwork, chimneys and windows, Civil Defence officials said. Preliminary building inspection reports indicated that most houses were structurally sound.

Mayor Alistair Sowman praised the calm response of Seddon residents.

“It has been a ghastly experience for many people and the continuing aftershocks and today’s heavy rain are not making it any easier.

“However Seddon people are typical tough rural New Zealanders and they are getting stuck in and helping each other,” he said.

“It has been a very, very frightening experience for this part of the country sitting right on the epicentre. Fortunately most people have family and friends who have rallied around them but it’s going to take some time for Seddon to recover, not just in terms of repairs and rebuilding, but also for peace of mind to be restored.”

Earthquake Minister Gerry Brownlee and Civil Defence Minister Nikki Kaye visited Seddon yesterday to reassure people who had fled quake-damaged homes.

Brownlee said they wanted to hear from residents about anything they could do to help them through this time. “I have a fair idea what you are going through, and how you are feeling,” he said.

State Highway 1 reopened just after midday yesterday, after the 6.6 quake opened up large cracks in the ground and caused big landslips between Seddon and Ward.

Seddon Earthquake 16 August 2013 road

Picture source…..3g.modasys.net

NZTA highways manager Frank Porter said contractors put in an “heroic” effort.

An EQC spokesman said it was too early to assess the impact.

“We’ll have a better idea on Monday when we get an idea of the claims that have come in and assessments begin.”

Shake felt ‘More Intense’ than February 22

A day after the big shake, locals in the small Marlborough town closest to the epicentre returned to Ward’s East Coast Inn for a quiet, calming beer.

It’s a stark contrast to the moment the magnitude 6.6 earthquake shook them and much of the country on Friday afternoon.

As Zac Walls recalls: “There were bottles flying everywhere and alcohol being spilt. I never saw so many people run out of a bar at once.”

Stu Orr, who was alongside Walls, said: “About four of us ran out of the bar with pints in our hands.”

The patrons waited until the shaking stopped before heading back inside to clean up.

Walls is in a rare position to give a verdict on the shake. He was in Christchurch for the February 22, 2011, earthquake. Marlborough’s was “more intense [and] the aftershocks have been more frequent”, he said.

Kerry Snell was among the hardy locals back at the East Coast Inn last night to talk over events as aftershocks rolled through. He was working on a fence near the Lake Grassmere Saltworks. “It literally dropped us to the ground. We tried standing, but there wasn’t a shit show in hell.”

He saw parts of the cliff-face collapse into the sea. “It wasn’t like anything I’ve ever seen or felt.”

Snell rushed home to find his chimney “ready to go”, the broken hot water cylinder flooding the house, along with a “fair few cracks”.

About 900 people live in the town, located about 20km from Seddon and 12km from the epicentre of Friday’s biggest quake. “Everyone sort of pulled together and went around and helped each other out. It’s pretty good here.” he said.

“This last year has probably been the worst I’ve ever seen as far as nature goes; it’s sort of thrown everything at us at once and hopefully that’s going to be it,” he said.

Ten-year-old Hunter Orne was waiting in line at Ward School to tell his teacher “something about writing” when he felt the earth begin to move.

“I yelled out ‘earthquake’. My teacher was bawling her eyes out,” he said, before quickly adding: “Well, just about crying. She was panicking . . . she wanted to make sure we didn’t get hurt.”

Sitting with a raspberry and coke at the inn last night, the year 6 pupil said he was “not really” scared.

“There is the concern that a bigger one might happen, but they still won’t harm us because you can’t do anything about them,” Hunter said.

Roof tiles fell and a chimney cracked at Hayden Shadbolt’s home. He rushed to pull tarpaulins over the damage before heavy rain began to fall and was on the roof when a magnitude 6.3 aftershock hit. “That was fun,” he joked.

The 37-year-old has lived in Ward his whole life, but Friday’s shake was the biggest he had ever felt.

“It was pretty fierce, you could say. It was a big sudden jar . . . getting stronger and stronger. I don’t want to feel another one.”

Wellington awaits Christchurch crane

In Wellington yesterday, shops, libraries and pubs were open, a day after a post-quake exodus from the city that left roads clogged and nerves frayed.

All power and water throughout the region was restored, with road, rail, ferry and bus services operating normally.

Lukes Lane was cordoned off pending the demolition of a teetering lift shaft.

Wellington Mayor Celia Wade-Brown said the structure had been declared a dangerous building.

Some lift machinery was removed yesterday, but most of the work would have to wait until a big crane arrived from Christchurch today or Monday, she said.

“We need something that is capable of lifting a 30-tonne slab of concrete.”

Council engineers had checked civic buildings and bridges, while some private building inspections were ongoing. There were some reports of water damage, but no further structural damage had yet been found.

Westpac Stadium chief executive Shane Harmon said its car park had been inspected and was structurally sound.

While there were no obvious signs of damage, the stadium would be checked by engineers tomorrow.

It should be fine for next week’s All Black test, he said.

“It’s purely a precautionary thing. We’re not anticipating any problems but public safety is our number one priority.”

News source…..www.stuff.co.nz

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com

Reggae stars UB40 declared bankrupt

Reggae stars UB40 declared bankrupt

Reggae stars UB40 declared bankrupt

Former chart toppers UB40, who notched up more than 50 chart hits in Britain, have been declared bankrupt.

Despite their glittering 33-year career, four leading members of the reggae band have been declared penniless.

Saxophone player Brian Travers, drummer Jimmy Brown, trumpeter Terence Oswald (known to fans as Astro), and percussionist Norman Hassan were all declared insolvent.

Tax officers can now seize property belonging to the band to pay off their outstanding debts.

There was a bitter bust-up over band finances which split the group following the collapse of their management company DEP International.

A judge sitting at Birmingham County Court ruled that they are bankrupt.

District Judge Richard Musgrave gave liquidators the green light to chase debts and royalty payments on UB40’s hits including chart topping Red Red Wine at a previous hearing in July.

He warned the reggae outfit they would have to pay costs in the case, believed to be in the region of £57,000.

In the week that they were declared bankrupt, they played a gig to fans at the pub where they first performed together in 1978 – the Hare and Hounds in Kings Heath, Birmingham.

The band – whose name comes from the Unemployment Benefit form 40 from the then Department of Health and Social Security – were honoured with a Performing Rights Society plaque at the event.

Former frontman Ali Campbell, a founding member of UB40, acrimoniously split from the group in 2008 following ongoing wrangles over finances.

Last night, his spokesman said the bankruptcy court case showed Ali was right to quit the band.

‘It is ironic that the very week they celebrate their first gig they have been declared bankrupt, after administration began in 2006, vindicating both Ali and Mickey Virtue’s decision to leave UB40,’ she said.

‘Ali did not personally receive an invitation to the Hare show and, as such, did not turn it down.

‘He most definitely would have liked to have been invited as it is where the journey began and Ali is proud of the fact that UB40’s music has been honoured.’

Despite being declared bankrupt, the remaining band members are understood to be recording a new album at a studio in Redditch, Worcestershire.

A fifth original member of UB40, Robin Campbell, Ali Campbell’s brother, was also involved in the Birmingham County Court case although is not listed as bankrupt.

News and picture source…..www.dailymail.co.uk

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com

Aussie Mum confronted PNG killers

Aussie Mum confronted PNG killers

Aussie Mum confronted PNG killers

Christiana King and family (Getty)

An Australian woman stood up to a group of bandits even as two of her colleagues were hacked to death on a walking trail in Papua New Guinea.

Bathurst-raised Christiana King, 38, has been hailed a hero by injured survivors after she presented herself as the leader of a group of Australian ex-soldiers hiking the Black Cat Trail.

As the military men curled up in the foetal position, Ms King offered the armed killers money in an effort to get them to go away, the Daily Telegraph reports.

The attack on Tuesday left two porters dead and four Australian tourists seriously injured.

Trekker Jon Hill, an ex-soldier who served in Somalia, said Ms King showed “pure, selfless courage”.

“She offered herself up as the leader. Not so much to be taken away. But to defuse the situation,” he said.

“She got hit, we all got beaten, but she got us out safe.”

Melbourne man Glen Reiss described the attack as completely quiet save for some thumping noises.

“It was silent. Except for hacking, slashing and some moaning,” he said.

“The thumping was the sound of a bush knife hacking into human flesh.”

A former trauma nurse at Sydney’s Royal North Shore hospital, Ms King is now helping with the treatment of the injured porters in a Papua New Guinea hospital.

Author: Nick Pearson. Approving editor: Dave Meddows

News and picture source…..news.ninemsn.com.au

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com


F3 freeway renamed M1 Pacific Motorway

F3 freeway renamed M1 Pacific Motorway

F3 freeway renamed M1 Pacific Motorway

The name may be different but the traffic remains.

The “F3” is no more, with the freeway between Beresfield and Sydney officially renamed as part of the M1 Pacific Motorway yesterday.

It forms part of the state government’s roll out of an alphanumeric system to tell motorists whether they are travelling on a motorway (M), route of national (A) or state significance (B).

The switch is to make road names consistent with those in Queensland and Victoria, but comes at a cost of at least $15 million

An RMS spokeswoman said the motorists would notice new signs being revealed that display the new name.

“Work to update routes across the state started in May this year and is expected to be complete by the end of this year,” she said.

“Electronic signs will remain in place for several weeks to advise motorists and help them transition to the new alphanumeric road numbering system and road names.”

NRMA Hunter director Kyle Loades said road users would need to familiarise themselves with the new names but that the changes made sense.

“The NRMA does endorse it because it will make it easier for motorists not only across the state but Australia,” he said.

The opposition has described the change as a waste of money.

During budget estimates last week, Roads Minister Duncan Gay struggled to supply on the spot some of the new names, but said the government had reduced the costs from the original estimate of $20 million

Labor said it showed motorists would struggle.

News source…..theherald.com.au

Picture source…..resources0.news.com.au

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com


Dating and Romance Scams

Dating and Romance Scams

What are dating and romance scams?
Dating and romance scams try to lower your defences by appealing to your romantic or compassionate side. They play on emotional triggers to get you to provide money, gifts or personal details.

Scammers target victims by creating fake profiles on legitimate internet dating services. Once you are in contact with a scammer, they will express strong emotions for you in a relatively short period of time and will suggest you move the relationship away from the website, to phone, email and/or instant messaging. Scammers often claim to be from Australia, but travelling or working overseas.

They will go to great lengths to gain your interest and trust, such as sharing personal information and even sending you gifts. Scammers may take months, to build what seems like the romance of a lifetime and may even pretend to book flights to visit you, but never actually come. Once they have gained your trust they will ask you (either subtly or directly) for money, gifts or your banking/credit card details.  They will pretend to need these for a variety of reasons.

For example, they may claim to be in the depths of despair due to financial hardship or an ill family member.

In other cases, the scammer might start off by sending you flowers or other small gifts then will tell you about a large amount of money they need to transfer out of their country or that they want to share with you. They will then ask for your banking details or money to cover administrative fees or taxes to free up the money. WARNING – This may be money laundering which is a criminal offence: never agree to transfer money for someone else.

Alternatively scammers may claim to have fallen ill or been involved in a serious accident. They will then ask you for money to pay medical bills or travel expenses to visit you. In some instances you may even be contacted by someone claiming to be their doctor.

Regardless of how you are scammed, you could end up losing a lot of money. Online dating and romance scams cheat Australians out of millions every year. The money you send to scammers is almost always impossible to recover and in addition, you may feel long-lasting emotional betrayal at the hands of someone who you thought loved you and was trustworthy.

Warning signs

  • You meet someone on an internet dating website and their profile picture or photograph looks different to their description or like it’s from a magazine.
  • After just a few contacts they profess strong feelings for you and suggest moving the conversation away from the website preferring email, instant messaging and/or phone instead.
  • After gaining your trust, they tell you an elaborate story and ask for money, gifts or your bank account/credit card details.
  • They continue to ask you for money, but never actually visit you.
  • If you don’t send money straightaway, their emails and calls will often become more desperate, persistent or direct.
  • The email is poorly written, vague or contains specific information taken directly from news articles, repeats itself, you are addressed by the wrong name, or the email is not personally addressed at all.

Protect yourself from dating and romance scams

  • ALWAYS consider the possibility that the approach may be a scam, particularly if the warning signs listed above appear. Try to remove the emotion from your decision making no matter how caring or persistent they seem.
  • Talk to an independent friend, relative or fair trading agency before you send any money. THINK TWICE before sending money to someone you have only recently met online or haven’t met in person.
  • NEVER give credit card or online account details to anyone by email.
  • Be very careful about how much personal information you share on social network sites. Scammers can use your information and pictures to create a fake identity or to target you with a scam.
  • If you agree to meet in person, tell family and friends where you are going. If this includes overseas travel, consider carefully the advice on www.smarttraveller.gov.au before making any plans.
  • Where possible, avoid any arrangement with a stranger that asks for up-front payment via money order, wire transfer or international funds transfer. It is rare to recover money sent this way.
  • If you think you have provided your account details to a scammer, contact your bank or financial institution immediately.
  • Money laundering is a criminal offence: do not agree to transfer money for someone else.

As well as following these specific tips, find out how to protect yourself from all sorts of other scams.

Report scams

If you think you’ve spotted a scam, report a scam to SCAMwatch or contact the ACCC on 1300 795 995. You should also spread the word to your friends and family to protect them.

Info source…..www.scamwatch.gov.au

Kevin Rudd Gets Revenge On Julia Gillard

Kevin Rudd Gets Revenge On Julia Gillard

Kevin Rudd Gets Revenge On Julia Gillard

Three years after being knifed by Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd gets revenge and returns as PM.

In an extraordinary turnaround in political fortunes, Australia’s former prime minister, Kevin Rudd, wrested the top job back today from Julia Gillard, who ousted him nearly three years ago to the day.

Mr Rudd, who was publicly tearful after being deposed in June 2010 and since then has plotted almost incessantly to regain office, was expected to be sworn in as prime minister tomorrow morning by the Australian Governor-General, Quentin Bryce, after  Ms Gillard, 51, formally resigned tonight.

In a piquant twist, Ms Bryce’s son-in-law, Bill Shorten, played a pivotal role in the downfall of Australia’s first female leader. An influential figure in Ms Gillard’s Labor Party and prime mover in the 2010 coup, Mr Shorten publicly switched support to Mr Rudd 20 minutes before Labor politicians voted in a leadership ballot.

Once close colleagues, Mr Rudd and his former deputy had become sworn political foes. Although their enmity remained largely unspoken, Gillard loyalists had denounced him as “dysfunctional”, “deeply flawed” and “a psychopath with a giant ego”.

Such quotes have been seized on by the conservative Liberal Party, and are already being aired in  TV advertisements which are expected to be frequently replayed in the run-up to an election later this year.

Today’s dramatic events lanced the boil which had been festering at the heart of Australian politics since Welsh-born Ms Gillard became prime minister. After the ballot, which Mr Rudd won by 57 votes to 51, an at times emotional Ms Gillard said she would retire from politics at the election.

It was poor polls which led to the 55-year-old Queenslander being knifed during his first term in office – an unprecedented event in Australia. And it was even poorer polls that led to a second sitting prime minister being dumped, amid predictions of the biggest landslide defeat for Labor for generations. Read more…..www.independent.co.uk

Picture Source…..static.guim.co.uk

Want More Articles? Visit Pasgroup.com